Pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis: recent insights of molecular and cellular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities

Author: John Varga, Maria Trojanowska, Masataka Kuwana
Date Published: July-2017
Source: Journal of Scleroderma and Related Disorders

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex disease characterized by early microvascular abnormalities, immune dysregulation and chronic inflammation, and subsequent fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Excessive fibrosis, distinguishing hallmark of SSc, is the end result of a complex series of interlinked vascular injury and immune activation, and represents a maladaptive repair process. Activated vascular, epithelial, and immune cells generate pro-fibrotic cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, lipid mediators, autoantibodies, and reactive oxygen species. These paracrine and autocrine cues in turn induce activation, differentiation, and survival of mesenchymal cells, ensuing tissue fibrosis through increased collagen synthesis, matrix deposition, tissue rigidity and remodeling, and vascular rarefaction.